Recent process control technology advancements in the manufacturing of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions based on electrochemistry have emerged as safe and viable wound cleaning agents as well as complementary therapies for the treatment of infections.
Hypochlorous solution (HOCl) is a strong oxidant and tends to remove electrons from another substance. Its sodium salt, sodium hydroxide (NaClO), or its calcium salt, calcium hydroxide (Ca (ClO) 2) are commonly used in disinfectants and disease prevention.
HOCl exists as a natural endogenous constituent in humans and animals and is an important part of the innate immune system. HOCl is produced by neutrophil granulocytes, the most abundant type of white blood cells in mammals. HOCl is involved in the last step of the Oxidative Route in the fight against infection and invasion of foreign substances.
When a cell detects the invasion of a foreign substance it undergoes phagocytosis, during which the neutrophil ingests and internalizes microorganisms or foreign particles. This phagocytic event results in the secretion of reactive oxygen species and hydrolytic enzymes.
Oxygen consumption during the generation of reactive oxygen species, called "reactive explosion", involves the activation of the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large amounts of superoxide.
This highly reactive oxygen species is decomposed into hydrogen peroxide , Which is then converted to HOCl. HOCl exerts bactericidal properties and immediately destroys the bacteria swallowed by neutrophils. Despite the substantial activity of HOCl against microorganisms, it is not cytotoxic to human or animal cells.